Location quotient (LQ) is a way of quantifying how concentrated a characteristic of a particular region is compared to the nation. These characteristics could be an industry's or occupation's share of employment, resident demographic, online profiles or job postings. The LQ is the calculation that reveals what makes that particular region “unique” in comparison to the national average.
For a longer explanation, see Lightcast’s article on Location Quotient.
Source: Lightcast’s proprietary employment data.